Speakers – June 1, 2022 – Concurrent 1C
Yikai Ren, Ph.D. Candidate – University of Saskatchewan
“I am currently a PhD candidate from the University of Saskatchewan. My PhD thesis is focusing on the investigation of the effects of varietal variation, processing conditions and phenolic compounds on the pulse-based low-glycemic extruded pet foods. My expertise lies in the carbohydrate chemistry and extrusion processing mainly. I am a person with broad interests and always ready to absorb new knowledge. Now I am actively seeking post-doc positions after my PhD study.”
Effects of pulse crop types and extrusion parameters on the physicochemical properties in vitro and in vivo startch digestibility of pet foods
Pulse flour is a functional and nutritious ingredient commonly used in extruded dry pet foods, in which the flour plays critical roles as a binder, texture provider, and energy source. However, few studies have explored the influence of pulse types, particularly high-amylose pulses, on the quality attributes and starch digestibility of extruded pet foods. In addition, due to the typically low starch content, there is a poor understanding of the physicochemical properties and digestibility of different pulse starches in such products. In this study, flours of round pea, lentil, faba bean, wrinkled pea, and rice (as control) were selected to produce dry pet foods at equivalent levels of starch (~20%) and other macronutrients, under “mild” (C1) and “extreme” (C2) extrusion conditions. Under both conditions, wrinkled pea pet foods showed significantly lower damaged/gelatinized-starch contents and less molecular breakdown than other samples. For all the formulations, the C2 condition gelatinized and degraded starch to greater extents than C1. Consistent with the structural and physicochemical properties of the extrudates, wrinkled pea pet foods exhibited notably lower digestibility in both in vitro and in vivo studies than other formulations. This study revealed the interrelationships among the structures, physicochemical properties, and starch digestibility of extruded pet foods formulated with normal and high-amylose pulse flours. Both pulse types and extrusion parameters effectively impacted the quality and starch digestibility of the extruded pet foods. Wrinkled pea flours of high amylose contents could be a promising ingredient for producing pet foods rich in resistant starch.
Dr. Caleb Acquah, Postdoctoral Research Fellow – University of Ottawa
Pulses are an important food grain due to their agronomic and nutritional benefits
Pulses are an important food grain due to their agronomic and nutritional benefits. Although many processing techniques have been used in the treatment of pulses, there is still little research on the nutritional benefits and impact on the gut microbiota of different varieties of the same type of pulse seeds. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the amino acid composition, digestibility and bioaccessibility of protein and starch and polyphenol content of cooked flours of white and dark red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The results showed that both cooked white and dark red kidney beans were nutritionally rich in the essential amino acids such as His, Thr, Ile, Val, Leu, and Lys, with the ratios of essential amino acids to total amino acids being 43% and 41%, respectively. Dark red kidney beans were observed to have a significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (74.75±0.42) relative to white kidney beans (73.86±0.45), an in vitro Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (IVPDCAAS) of 59.42±0.36 and 59.83±0.34, and a degree of hydrolysis of 4.49±0.03 and 4.39±0.21. Dark red kidney beans had a significantly (p<0.05) higher total phenolic content (0.54±0.05 GAE/mg) compared to white kidney beans (0.42±0.03 GAE/mg). Images from fluorescence microscopy revealed similarities in the encapsulation of undigested starch and proteins within the walls of the dietary fibre for cooked white and dark red kidney beans after in vitro digestion. This study is significant to develop a fundamental understanding of the physical, chemical, and molecular properties of two different varieties of the same pulse type. This will help further advance their applications in the development of new food products.
Dr. Raymond Thomas, Professor in Biochemistry and Environmental Science – Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador
Dr Raymond Thomas is a Professor in Biochemistry and Environmental Science at Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador. He is a world renoun expert in lipidomics, brain health, functional foods Innovation and production in boreal or northern climate. Research areas of interests includes lipid bioinformatics and applications in functional foods innovation, foodomics, environmental stress biology and biochemisty, neurolipidome and influences on brain health.
Application of Lipidomics to Assess Food Production in Boreal or Northern Climate
Application of lipidomics to Assess Food Production in Boreal or Northern Climate Raymond Thomas1, Sey, A., Pham1, T., Cheema1, M. Galagedara L1., Nadeem, M1. Fillier, T1., Goodwin2, P, Guzman-Novoa2, E. and Morfin, N2. 1Memorial University, Faculty of Science/Boreal Ecosystem and Agriculture Science, Grenfell Campus, Corner Brook, Newfoundland, Canada 2School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada. Lipidomics is an analytical approach used to determine the lipidome in biological samples. Crops grown in boreal climates are exposed to various stressors that can influence production. The cell membrane is very sensitive to these stressors and is known to modulate its lipid composition as a strategy to successfully circumvent these stressors. This presentation will demonstrate applications of a multimodal lipidomics approach to show the following: 1. Elevated phosphatidic acids and novel acylated acylated-phosphatidylglycerol in silage corn cultivated successfully on podzols in boreal climate 2. Canola doubles the omega 3 fatty acid level and bioaccumulate monoacetyldiacylglycerides when grown at lower temperatures in boreal climate 3. Membrane of soil microbes present in the root rhizosphere of boreal podzols contain high levels of monomethylated phosphatidylethanolamine. 4. Plasmanyl lipids and not plasmalogens predominate honey bee brain lipidome and clothianidin (insecticide) exposure significantly reduce their levels impacting self-grooming behavior. This work will show how lipidomics can be a useful tool to help better understand how plant, microbes and insects can navigate stressors during food production in boreal climate.
Dr. Amanda Wright, Associate Professor, Department of Human Health & Nutritional Sciences, College of Biological Sciences – University of Guelph
Amanda is an Associate Professor in the Department of Human Health & Nutritional Sciences, College of Biological Sciences at the University of Guelph. She holds a BSc (Food Science – University of Guelph, 1998) and PhD (Food Chemistry – University of Guelph, 2002) and completed postdoctoral training in Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto). Amanda teaches in the Nutritional & Nutraceutical Sciences BSc Program and leads an interdisciplinary research group working at the food-nutrition interface. In particular, she has specialized expertise in dietary lipids. Amanda works to integrate advanced food analysis and in vitro digestion methods with human clinical trials for a variety of foods and natural health products. She also serves as Director of the Human Nutraceutical Research Unit, a research and educational vehicle at the University of Guelph which engages in collaborative and contract nutrition clinical trials.
Foods for satiety – applying gastric ultrasound
Satiety refers to the complex biopsychological processes that occur after eating and that control appetite and delay future eating. There is significant research interest in better understanding the underlying mechanisms, as well as commercial and consumer interest in satiety as a potential target to help manage food intake in scenarios of over- or under-consumption. Many factors contribute to postprandial satiety, e.g., the amount, macronutrient composition, hedonic quality, structure, and physical properties of foods. With respect to the latter, it is the structure and physical properties of foods in the gastrointestinal tract that are especially relevant. For example, soluble dietary fibres can alter meal transit and nutrient release and absorption in ways that contribute to satiety because they induce viscosity in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract. In this talk, we focus attention on the process of gastric emptying and its relationship to meal structure and satiety. This is explored using a series of oil-in-water emulsions containing different solid fat contents and formulated to flocculate, or not, in the presence of gastric acidity. In a randomized crossover acute meal study (ClinicalTrials.gov registration #NCT03990246), healthy men consumed 250 mL of each emulsion after an overnight fast and rated their satiety on visual analogue scales and had blood collected for satiety hormone analysis. Our team of food-nutrition researchers also implemented a non-invasive gastric ultrasonography method to visual participants’ stomach contents and to determine stomach volume from which rates of gastric emptying were determined. The results highlight the utility of ultrasonography to confirm intended differences in emulsion gastric microstructure. Moreover, the differences in gastric microstructure were associated with differences in gastric emptying and ultimately meaningful differences in participant satiety ratings and hormones. Coupling in vitro digestion and in vivo methods in this work also supported our understanding of the relationship between lipid properties and metabolic response, centralizing on events in the gastrointestinal tract. The application of ultrasonography allows us to expand our studies to understand better how foods are handled in the gastrointestinal tract in ways which are important because they affect postprandial metabolism, including satiety. This will support the development of evidencebased products which is critical given consumer susceptibility to sensationalized claims surrounding satiety and body weight management.
Azadeh Vatandoust, Ph.D. Candidate – University of Toronto
Azadeh Vatandoust is currently a senior Ph.D. student under the supervision of Prof. Levente Diosady in the Chemical Engineering department at the University of Toronto. In 2012, she completed her master’s degree in Food Science at the University of Guelph. Before engaging herself in the Ph.D. program, she worked in the Research and Development department of one of the largest frozen bakery companies in North America. Her current Ph.D. research focuses on developing cost-effective technology for reducing micronutrient deficiencies through fortifying iodized salt with zinc alone and with other micronutrients such as Iron.
Micronutrient’s deficiency can have devastating and profound effects on health, social, and economic development. The most common cause of micronutrient deficiency is the lack of micronutrient intake from the diet because of cultural considerations, religious beliefs, or financial reasons, which often occur in developing countries. Zinc and iron deficiency are among the most widespread nutritional disorders. Iron deficiency causes impaired immunity, lower physical and cognitive capacity, maternal and infant mortality. Zinc deficiency increases the risk of death due to diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria. Both zinc and iron deficiency can negatively affect the absorption of other micronutrients. Iron and zinc deficiencies usually occur in combination, mainly because of a low intake of animal-sourced food. Furthermore, zinc deficiency could lead to impaired iron absorption because zinc is found in the structure of enzymes that coordinate or catalyze iron metabolism; iron deficiency causes decreased iodine utilization because iron is required for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Thus, by supplying iodine, iron and zinc in a single vehicle, the impact of fortification can be maximized. It is also more economical to use a single vehicle to deliver a number of micronutrients if there is a proper means for doing so. While several foods can be used as a fortificant vehicle, the poorest rural population in the developing world do not consume processed food products and therefore do not benefit. Salt is an ideal carrier for micronutrients as it is universally consumed independently of their socioeconomic status. The Food Engineering Group at the University of Toronto developed effective technology to fortify salt with iron and iodine based on agglomeration and encapsulation methods. The iron source used was ferrous fumarate as its highly bioavailable and has a bland taste. The encapsulated ferrous fumarate premix matches salt grains in size and colour, and therefore the resulting DFS is almost identical in taste, colour, and odour to regular salt. DFS efficacy has been field-tested in several studies. Its success suggests that it would be prudent to use the existing infrastructure to deliver zinc along with iron and iodine through salt, and the marginal cost of adding zinc to the established technology is low. The appropriate technology for adding GRAS zinc salts to the DFS was investigated in this study. The most convenient and efficient option to add zinc to the iodized salt was to add it through a spray solution simultaneously with iodine. Zinc chloride and zinc sulphate, two soluble and affordable GRAS zinc salts were added separately to the potassium iodate spray solution. However, because of iodine instability in the fortified spray solution, it was decided to incorporate zinc salt into the iron premix for the best micronutrient stability. Zinc oxide was chosen for addition to the iron premix because of its high zinc content, affordability and stability. Several formulations were prepared and studied for the micronutrient’s stability and physical properties. The stability of the formulations was investigated by storing fortified salt at elevated temperature and humidity, and periodically measuring iodine retention in the fortified salt over one year. Our final results confirms that salt fortification with iodine, iron and zinc is technically feasible and economically viable. The technique of premix formulation has been successfully tested on a pilot scale and will form the basis of a large efficiency study in Hariana Stato for India, performed by UC Davis, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.